What is UTI(Urinary Tract Infection)?
UTI stands for urinary tract infection. In simple terms, it is the infection of your urinary system which includes your urethra, prostate (in the case of male patients), kidneys and bladder.
It is an infection in any part of the urinary system such as kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract such as the bladder and the urethra.
What causes a UTI?
UTIs are caused by the bacterial expansion of the urinary system. Most of the diseases are rising in life i.e. the infection rises from your external urine way (urethra) to affect the urinary system or organs. This leads to prostatitis (prostate infection), cystitis(bladder infection) or in advanced cases pyelonephritis (kidney infection). The bacterias causing virus eg. E.coli is already existing in our gut flora. Whenever people get a chance to invade our urinary system, particularly if the immunity is weak they lead to infection. Women are especially prone to bacterial infections as both the urine way and stool portion are very near to each other thereby allowing the bacteria to invade the urinary system. This is quite a simple post about sexual intercourse.
What are the symptoms & signs of UTI?
1. Feeling the feverish or high-grade fever
2.Burning sensation while passing urine
3.Pain in two-sided flanks(sides of your body)
4. Loss of taste
5. Pain while passing urine
6. Dirty smelling urine
7. Pain in the lower back
At times there may be small blood mixed with urine
The feeling of urgency i.e. frequent desire to pass urine
How to diagnose UTI?
UTIs are diagnosed firstly based on the background history of symptoms given by the patient and clinical testing to look for pain, fever, tenderness in the lower abdomen (cystitis) or in flanks (pyelonephritis). To maintain the clinical diagnosis your Urologist Doctor will require some essential tests such as your urine routine cycle and microscopic test and urine production. At times an ultrasound or a CT scan is also needed to complete the diagnosis particularly in people who have recurrent infections.
How do you treat UTI?
UTIs can be treated with medicines based on your urine culture sensitivity report i.e. the antibiotic that your causative bacteria are sensitive to Most cases can be managed with oral medicines though at times in cases of critical infections or high-grade fever one may require to originally start injections.
Why do some people keep on having UTIs?
It is very essential to differentiate between a recurrent urinary tract infection and a remaining urinary tract infection. A remaining urine infection is the one which has never been fully treated or eradicated in the first place. As a result after a symptom-free time, the patient is again bothered with related symptoms although the severity may vary. The most regular cause of a residual UTI is an inadequate treatment of the initial chapter. Perversely, this has got a many to do with patient compliance. After a day or two of taking medicines or antibiotics once the patients’ signs disappear, they stop the antibiotics. As a result, the bacteria that was going under control get an opportunity for the resurgence. You should almost never start or stop any treatment without discussing your Urologist Doctor in Pune. Recurrent UTIs, on the other hand, are repeated episodes of infection.
What are the causes of recurrent UTIs?
In case a patient has recurrent UTIs (male or female), some things should be considered.
a) Local genital hygiene of the patient
Does the female patient have a background story of vaginal discharge(frothy whitish discharge, curdy)? If so this is a possible cause of repeated infections and requires to be treated first. You have to consult your gynaecologist for the same.
Does the male patient have any problem with a penile foreskin like redness and discharge from the foreskin, cracking and fissuring of the skin or inability to completely retract the foreskin in either erect or flaccid position? If so this requires to be discussed, either with medications or operation (circumcision).
b) Rule out diabetes
High blood sugar levels or undiagnosed diabetes is a very common but often unknown cause of recurred urine infections. It can be simply diagnosed with blood tests and handled using medicines, physical activity and dietary changes.
c) Kidney stones
Infection can start to the formation of stones and also infection stones can, in turn, lead to repeated infections. In patients with recurred infections, imaging investigations (x-ray, ultrasound, CT scan) should be taken to rule out the appearance of stones. If stones are already present they should be eliminated via endoscopic or key-hole operations using lasers.
d) Difficulty in urine passage
In male patients with narrowed stricture urethra, the urinary bladder is incapable to remove itself entirely. This residual urine is the cause of recurrent infections. Such patients should also consider urological process (such as optical internal urethrotomy) to improve their difficulties which in turn will reduce the risks of reproduced urine infections.
In general to prevent reoccurred urine infections patients should be careful. First of all, to treat a documented (via urine production) infection the prescribed antibiotic course should be taken completely. Water intake should be sufficient (around 2.5-3 litres per day). A rough guideline is that the colour of urine that you pass should be the same as that of water. No need to drink 6-7 litres of water as your friends or relatives may recommend. Local genital hygiene should be well maintained i.e. daily cleaning of genitalia with soap and water, trimming of pubic hair etc. Last but not the least some people have a habit of popping in a dose or two of medicines at the smallest feeling of burning. This should never be done.
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